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Skin anatomy

The skin is the largest organ in the human body. It has numerous functions, and in order to perform them all, it’s important that it’s integrity is intact and that it’s healthy.

Skin functions

  1. Protective role – protects the body from mechanical, physical and chemical damages
  2. Thermoregulatory function – maintains thermoregulation, conserves and dissipates body heat
  3. Participates in the formation of Vitamin D – important for bone integrity
  4. Presents a natural barrier -  it keeps essential nutrients inside the body, and keeps the outside elements out
  5. It’s an immune organ – it’s involved in the immunity

Skin Layers

Skin is comprised of the 3 basic layers.

  1. Epidermis – outer layer
  2. Dermis – medium layer
  3. Hypodermis – subcutaneous layer

Epidermis

Epidermis is the most superficial layer of the skin (the one that we see), it has a basic role in protection because it presents a barrier. Between it and the dermis is a membrane (basement membrane), which presents the true border between the organism and the outside environment.

Dermis

Dermis the medium layer of the skin in which all of the relevant structures are contained, glands – sebaceal and sweat, hair roots, collagen and elastic fibers, and blood vessels and nerves that vascularize and innervate the skin pass through it.

Hypodermis

Hypodermis is the deepest layer of the skin, which is mainly composed of fatty tissue, it differs in thickness depending on the region of the body. It presents an ’insulation’ layer, which stops unwanted heat loss through the skin.

Skin is the organ that is most exposed to the outside environment and it’s elements: the Sun, sunbeds, air pollutants. Other than that, the inside of the body affects the skin as well: stress, illness, exhaustion, lack of sleep and poor living habits. It’s always a reflection of the state of Your organism.

It’s important to emphasize that skin needs water, and that skin hydration is important for all of it’s functions and appearance. Dehydrated skin is dry to the touch, non-elastic and it’s metabolism is slowed down.

 

Basic skin types:

Normal skin

skin that looks smooth, tight and healthy; that is neither oily nor dry; skin that has small, barely visible pores.

Oily skin

skin that reflects; very often expanded pores are present, texture can go from rough to smooth; blackheads can be often seen on it.

Dry skin

skin that is flaky, has tiny pores; it can have tiny blackheads; gives a sense of tightness, but like only the superficial layer the skin is tight, not the whole thickness of the skin, sometimes it itches.

Combined skin

the skin that is partially dry, partially normal and in some regions even oily; forehead and the region around the jaw or the beard are usually oily; cheeks are usually dry.

Sensitive skin

thin, fragile skin; dilated (broken) capillaries can be seen through it; it promptly reacts to the change of temperature (hot and cold), it’s prone to allergic reactions; it easily gets red and burns in the Sun.

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